Effects of lucid dream induction on external-rated lucidity, dream emotions, and dream bizarreness
Lucidity is a rare phenomenon, thus different induction techniques are used to increase the frequency of lucid dreaming. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of lucid dream induction (three different cognitive methods: Dream diary, Wake-up-back-to-Bed, and reality testing/reflection) on external rated lucidity, dream length, overall emotional tone, and bizarreness. Overall, 110 participants completed the three-week study protocol. Results showed only few external-rated lucid dreams compared to the high percentage dreams including some form of self-rated lucidity. The small effect of increasing positive dream emotions during the course of the study fit in with the framework of the Imagery Rehearsal Therapy. No effects on dream length and dream bizarreness were found.