O analiză a vieţii agricole în spaţiul est-carpatic în timpul migraţiilor târzii (secolele XI-XIII): Continuitate ori discontinuitate

  • George Bilavschi (Author)

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A Survey of Agricultural Life in the Eastern Carpathian Area During the Late Migrations (11th - 13th Centuries): Continuity or Discontinuity

In this paper we propose to further examine the possibilities that the late migrations of the 11th - 13th centuries induced periods of growth and decline of agrarian settlements, but also the intensifications of trade and communications in the Eastern Carpathian area. The rhythm and intensity of the invasions are indicative of the reinforcement of the tribal confederation in southern Moldavia and in Wallachia, as a result of the gradual migration of Turkicpeoples from North Pontic area to the west. It ispossible that extra-Carpathian territories played the role of buffer zones between the nomads and the Christian states. The function of buffer zones was to reduce the likelihood of conflict, but these regions also feature an opportunity for peaceful exchange, and so they may develop into centers of trade. During the 11th - 13th centuries, the local communities of Moldavia had the characteristics of a sedentary and rural society, bonded to its traditional occupations, agriculture and stock breeding completed by artisan occupations. Given the favorable environment, this economic profile was sufficient for subsistence and could occasionally produce a surplus for exchange. This reexamination of the nomads way of life and of their influence on agrarian communities suggests that there was much more than just interaction between the civilizations of East and West. Extreme climatic and geographical conditions repeatedly made Central Asian peoples develop modes of subsistence and institutional structures that had huge consequences for world history. New sources continue to appear and so we hope to be able to rule out some explanations and find support for others. In order to test the explanations for the relation between sedentary/farmer and nomad/warrior/conqueror we need quantitative data with good temporal resolution over the relevant time period and in the relevant regions for settlement, climate change, epidemic diseases, migrations, trade and warfare.

Keywords: medieval agriculture, agricultural tools, nomads, farmers, East-Carpathian territories, 11th - 13th Centuries, Late Migrations.