RIHA Journal https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal <p>RIHA, the International Association of Research Institutes in the History of Art, has launched the RIHA Journal in 2010. It is a peer-reviewed and <a href="https://open-access.net/informationen-zu-open-access">Open Access</a> e-journal devoted to the full range of the history of art and visual culture. The RIHA Journal especially welcomes papers on topics relevant from a supra-local perspective, articles that explore artistic interconnections or cultural exchanges, or engage with important theoretical questions that are apt to animate the discipline. Languages of publication are English, French, German, Italian, or Spanish.</p> International Association of Research Institutes in the History of Art - RIHA en-US RIHA Journal 2190-3328 0279 Gold on Blue in Philadelphia https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/91952 <p>In 1957, American art historian Robert C. Smith was asked by Julius Zieget, Secretary and Treasurer of the Philadelphia Museum of Art (PMA), to travel to Lisbon to purchase gilded woodcarved objects, sculptures and <em>azulejos </em>(hand painted tiles) to create a 'Portuguese chapel' within the Samuel S. Fleisher Art Memorial, established in the deconsecrated Church of the Evangelists in Philadelphia. This was the first time that Portuguese art pieces would leave Portugal with the specific aim of musealizing a chapel in a public space. Smith’s valuable contacts in Lisbon, namely with João Couto, then director of the Museu Nacional de Arte Antiga (MNAA), led him to the antique dealers and private collectors that would eventually supply the objects he sought.</p> <p>This essay explores and reflects upon the cultural and historical context surrounding the project, and looks into the commissioning, acquisition and installation of the chapel, a process that lasted from 1957 to 1960 (the chapel was inaugurated in 1961 by Luís Esteves Fernandes, then Portuguese ambassador to the US). Working from unpublished documents, namely Smith’s correspondence, the article also traces the fortune of the pieces purchased by Smith from the moment they were placed in the Fleisher Foundation chapel to the present.</p> Sílvia Ferreira Copyright (c) 2022 Sílvia Ferreira https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-08 2022-12-08 10.11588/riha.2022.1.91952 0278 Geld oder Liebe? Theodoor van Thuldens Rückkehr nach Antwerpen im Jahr 1634 https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/91934 <p class="Abstract-text"><span lang="EN-US">The painter and etcher Theodoor van Thulden (1606–1669) was documented as a master in Antwerp from 1626, though not long thereafter, at the beginning of the 1630s, he would move to France. The aim of this article is to reconstruct why he chose to return to Antwerp in 1634 by analyzing three possible factors in his relocation: family obligations, a position as churchwarden at the church of St. Jacob, and the Joyous Entry of the Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Spain into Antwerp on 17 April 1635. The investigation includes a reconsideration of the sources that have generally been used to reconstruct his biography, as well as a study of previously unknown archival material. From all these sources it can be deduced that van Thulden was probably in direct contact with Peter Paul Rubens (1577–1640) at the beginning of his career, and that it was Rubens who encouraged him to return to Antwerp.</span></p> Sabrina Lind Copyright (c) 2022 Sabrina Lind https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-07 2022-12-07 10.11588/riha.2022.1.91934 0280 The Hidden Beginnings of a Breakthrough: Lina Bo Bardi’s First Steps in Brazil https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/90731 <p>Italian-born architect Lina Bo Bardi always claimed that she had moved to Brazil in the aftermath of World War II because the freedom ideals of the Italian Resistance had been betrayed. Recent studies argue she was merely accompanying her husband, Pietro Maria Bardi, who was organizing art exhibitions in Rio de Janeiro. However, as documented by the correspondence published here for the first time, Bo Bardi did not embark on the journey to the New World because of the failures of the Italian Resistance or simply as a companion to her husband: she had been charged with the task of ensuring Brazil’s participation in the eighth edition of the <em>Triennale di Milano</em> (1947). On the basis of the correspondence documenting this assignment, this essay fills a historiographic gap and, more importantly, aims to radically revise the narrative around the initial phase of Bo Bardi’s stay in Brazil, the country she increasingly felt as her own and where she eventually spent her entire life.</p> Daniele Pisani Copyright (c) 2022 Daniele Pisani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-12-21 2022-12-21 10.11588/riha.2022.1.90731 0277 Eine Geschichte von Hasen: Zu Sigmar Polkes Rezeption des Feldhasen von Albrecht Dürer https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/90043 <p lang="en-US"><span lang="en-GB">The article explores the role of Albrecht Dürer’s famous watercolour </span><span lang="en-GB"><em>The Hare</em></span><span lang="en-GB"> (1502) in the work of Sigmar Polke (1941–2010) who is considered one of the most prominent artists active in Rhineland in the post-war period. In his work, Polke repeatedly used visual materials from everyday life in West Germany, which he inserted as </span><span lang="en-GB"><em>objets trouvés</em></span><span lang="en-GB"> or as references and paraphrases into his paintings and other images. In art-historical and art-critical literature, Polke’s quotations of </span><span lang="en-GB"><em>The Hare</em></span><span lang="en-GB"> have been interpreted primarily in terms of the artist’s supposedly critical att</span><span lang="en-GB">i</span><span lang="en-GB">tude either towards the mimetic character of Dürer’s study or towards the misuse of the </span><span lang="en-GB">Old Master’s imagery in consumer society. </span><span lang="en-GB">This article argues that the reflective potential of the presence of Dürer’s </span><span lang="en-GB"><em>Hare</em></span><span lang="en-GB"> in Polke’s work goes far beyond mere reference to the Renaissance artist and his study of nature. It will be shown that Polke’s reference to the </span><span lang="en-GB"><em>Hare</em></span><span lang="en-GB"> also comments on working methods of colleagues such as Joseph Beuys, Konrad Lueg and Dieter Roth. By paraphrasing Dürer’s </span><span lang="en-GB"><em>Hare</em></span><span lang="en-GB">, Polke also reflects on the relationship between art and everyday life, blurring and questioning the established hierarchies.</span></p> Ksenija Tschetschik-Hammerl Copyright (c) 2022 Ksenija Tschetschik-Hammerl https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-10-26 2022-10-26 10.11588/riha.2022.1.90043 0275 Niepublikowany projekt kościoła luterańskiego autorstwa Valentina von Saebischa https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/89822 <p class="Abstract-text"><span lang="EN-US">Wśród niepublikowanej spuścizny po Valentinie von Saebischu (1577–1657), bodaj najwybitniejszym architekcie czynnym na Śląsku w 1. połowie XVII wieku, znajduje się zespół czterech rysunków projektowych przedstawiających luterański kościół. Unikatowy wśród budownictwa ryglowego pod względem bogactwa architektonicznego, projekt ten jest ważnym, a dotychczas nieuwzględnianym przez badaczy świadectwem stanu architektury sakralnej przed pożogą wywołaną przez Wojnę Trzydziestoletnią. Dzieło Saebischa jest doskonałym świadectwem recepcji praskiej architektury powstającej w czasasch cesarza Rudolfa II (1552–1612), a także obowiązujących tam standardów warsztatowych projektantów architektonicznych.</span></p> Marek Świdrak Copyright (c) 2022 Marek Świdrak https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 10.11588/riha.2022.1.89822 0274 The Man of Sorrows by Hans von Aachen in Břevnov Monastery in Prague https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/89784 <p>This study presents a hitherto unpublished painting of The Man of Sorrows, located in Břevnov monastery in Prague, by the Rudolfine court painter Hans von Aachen. The aim is to investigate not only the provenance of the work and the presumable commissioner, Abbot Wolfgang Selender of Prošovice, but also the painting’s place in Von Aachen’s œuvre, possible sources of inspiration for its iconography as well as formal design in Italy and Prague. Among other findings, a technological survey conducted during its restoration revealed a man’s face in the lower layers of paint, possibly a portrayal of the Emperor Rudolf II.</p> Štěpán Vácha Copyright (c) 2022 Štěpán Vácha https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 10.11588/riha.2022.1.89784 0276 An Unpublished Lutheran Church Design by Valentin von Saebisch https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/88798 <p>The unpublished legacy of Valentin von Saebisch (1577–1657), arguably Silesia’s most eminent architect in the former half of the seventeenth century, includes a set of four drawings representing a Lutheran church design. This post-and-beam design stands out from other examples of this kind with its richness and variety. This important testimony to church architecture, perished in the ravages of the Thirty Years’ War, has yet to be fully investigated by researchers. The design by Saebisch is a perfect testimony to the reception of Prague architecture created under the reign of Emperor Rudolf II (1552–1612) and the technical standards used by the architects of that time.</p> Marek Świdrak Copyright (c) 2022 Marek Świdrak https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-07-15 2022-07-15 10.11588/riha.2022.1.88798 0273 Anastas Jovanović: Photographer of the New Slovak Political Representation https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/87886 <p class="Abstract-text"><span lang="EN-US">This essay looks into the very beginnings of paper photography in the Austrian Empire. It focuses on two salted paper portraits of two most iconic figures of the Slovak National Revival in the mid-19th century, Ľudovít Štúr and Jozef M. Hurban. Created around 1849 by Anastas Jovanović, a Serbian photographer and lithographer based in Vienna, both portraits are the earliest paper photographs today preserved in Slovak collections. The article elucidates not only the salted paper prints’ authorship, origin, ownership and material characteristics, but also the notion of reproduction and circulation of images during the revolutionary years of 1848 and 1849 and by the advent of photography on paper in Central Europe at the same time. Special attention is paid to social and cultural contacts between Slovaks and Serbs around 1848 as a key factor to the photographs’ production.</span></p> Petra Trnková Copyright (c) 2022 Petra Trnková https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-04-20 2022-04-20 10.11588/riha.2022.1.87886 0272 "Iussu patris"? Prolegomena on Form and Function of Women Artists’ Signatures in the Early Modern Period https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/86935 <p>This article aims to give for the first time an overview of the form and function of women artists’ signatures in early modern Europe, with a particular focus on Italy. Through an analysis of the frequency with which women artists signed their works as well as the iconic and textual form of the inscriptions, it establishes a number of peculiarities that distinguish female from male signing practice. It attempts then to explain these differences by the specific sociocultural conditions under which artistic activity by women was possible and accepted. The central thesis is that the frequency and particular textual form of women’s signatures were prompted by the special interest of patrons and collectors in works created by female artists. Rather than an expression of their authors’ self-assurance as artists in a field dominated by men, as earlier scholarship tended to assume, the characteristics of female signing practice were often an index of their limited autonomy.</p> Samuel Vitali Copyright (c) 2022 Samuel Vitali https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-09-06 2022-09-06 10.11588/riha.2022.1.86935 0271 Francisco de Holanda's Drawings and Words: Fortification, Architecture and Urban Design https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/86933 <p>Artistically gifted courtier Francisco de Holanda (1517/1518–1584) left several manuscripts, containing both texts and drawings, in a quantity and of a consistency rarely seen in sixteenth-century Portugal. Holanda's contributions to architectural knowledge are well known among scholars, yet their relevance has not been fully acknowledged. Some obstacles need to be overcome: a one-sided disciplinary approach, a disproportionate focus on the influence of treatises, and the seductive pull of an eccentric personality. Beyond the debate on his contribution to artistic practice or even to the idea of classical antiquity, his achievements had a bearing on Portuguese culture in a wider and more complex sense than has previously been discussed. Educated in royal circles, at a time when imperial overseas ambitions depended strongly on military expertise, Holanda lent his skills as a painter to the task of espionage through his drawings of foreign fortifications, while making a significant contribution to the development of architectural language and thus to the emergence of the architect's profile. As such, a reassessment of the legacy of this artistically talented courtier is long overdue. Rereading his works and putting all the pieces together gives us a better insight into the bonds between art theory and architecture, fortification and urban design, from the position of a cultured non-specialist.</p> Margarida Tavares da Conceição Copyright (c) 2022 Margarida Tavares da Conceição https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-05-03 2022-05-03 10.11588/riha.2022.1.86933 0270 Tras las huellas del maestro. Zacharie Astruc: admirador y coleccionista de Francisco de Goya https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/85606 <p>In the Footsteps of the Master. Zacharie Astruc: Admirer and Collector of Francisco de Goya</p> <p>Zacharie Astruc (1833–1907) was an important artist and art critic of the second half of the 19th century. This article presents new data on a facet that has not been widely known until now: the one related to his early appreciation of the value of Francisco de Goya's work, especially after the trip he made to Spain in 1864. Thanks to the study of his notebooks and drawings as well as various manuscripts preserved in the Archive du Musée d'Orsay (Paris), it has been possible to find out what works of Goya he contemplated in Spain and what his perception of them was. In his sketches he came to set two scenes in the Quinta del Sordo before the <em>Black paintings</em> were transferred onto canvas. Finally, thanks to the consultation of an auction catalogue of his collection, the article presents unpublished data on the role of Zacharie Astruc as a collector of Goya's works.</p> Guillermo Juberías Gracia Copyright (c) 2022 Guillermo Juberías Gracia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-03-17 2022-03-17 10.11588/riha.2022.1.85606 0259 Reconsidering Anders Zorn’s Omnibus Paintings https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/85605 <p>This article reconsiders the relationship between Anders Zorn’s (1860–1920) <em>Omnibus </em>paintings. Two largescale versions exist for the <em>Omnibus </em>motif (<em>Omnibus I </em>and <em>Omnibus II</em>), both of which have historically been viewed as official works that were exhibited by Zorn during the years 1892–1893. Drawing upon recent technical analyses of the artist’s oil paintings, together with relevant archival sources, a discussion is put forward with the aim of reconfiguring the earlier <em>Omnibus I </em>(1891) version as an initial sketch (<em>esquisse</em>) to the later <em>Omnibus II </em>(1892).</p> Emma Jansson Copyright (c) 2022 Emma Jansson https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-01-21 2022-01-21 10.11588/riha.2021.0.85605 0258 Wading into Battle: Frida Kahlo, Surrealism, and the Gradivian Myth https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/85590 <p>The author investigates Frida Kahlo’s subversive response to the surrealist imaginary of the Woman-Child, brought to life in Wilhelm Jensen’s novella&nbsp;<em>Gradiva</em>&nbsp;(1901). The author retraces the Freudian roots of Gradiva’s popularity among the surrealists, and analyses Kahlo’s painting&nbsp;<em>What the Water Gave Me</em>&nbsp;(1938) as a critical re-enactment of the childish, naïve femininity represented in the works of male surrealists. The author argues that Kahlo’s use of Gradivian motifs and her changing attitude towards the poetics of surrealism are traceable not only within her visual works, but in her intimate drawings and writings as well, exemplified by a letter to Jacqueline Lamba and other excerpts from Kahlo’s diary. Underscoring the role Kahlo friendship with Lamba played in the Mexican’s career sheds new light on the ways she referenced surrealism in her art.</p> Joanna Piechura Copyright (c) 2022 Joanna Piechura https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2022-02-04 2022-02-04 10.11588/riha.2021.0.85590 0257 A Half-Hearted Expressionist Extortion https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/85259 <p>This article traces the genealogy of Expressionism in Uruguay as an artistic form that, within the framework of a figurative art trend of social and popular orientation, questioned the hegemonic guidelines regarding the cultural identity under construction in the first half of the twentieth century. Taking as an example the representation of the rural landscape and the <em>gaucho</em>, the article describes the incorporation of Expressionist principles and values to reveal both the persistence of the primitive in the project of the modern nation and the consequences of the incipient industrialization on the human experience.</p> María Frick Copyright (c) 2021 María Frick https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-12-17 2021-12-17 10.11588/riha.2021.0.85259 0269 Altering the Titles of Artworks for New Functions. Two Plaster Groups by Josip Urbanija (1877–1943) https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/81900 <p>Slovenian sculptor Josip Urbanija (1877–1943) received his initial training in workshops in Ljubljana, Selce pri Škofji Loki and Klagenfurt, then he studied with Hans Bitterlich at the Academy of Fine Arts in Vienna shortly before the First World War. He spent the war years in Bosnia, where he completed two monuments. After the dissolution of the Habsburg Monarchy, he settled permanently in Vienna. This is partly the reason why his life and work have hardly been researched and are almost unknown. The aim of the present study is to provide insight into the origin of two monumental sculptural groups initially named <em>Quelle</em> (<em>Water Spring</em>) and <em>Tunnelbrecher</em> (<em>Tunnel Breaker</em>). In addition, it also discusses later names of the two plaster artworks and examines what they reveal about the intended functions of the sculptures.</p> Karin Šmid Copyright (c) 2021 Karin Šmid https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-07-10 2021-07-10 10.11588/riha.2021.1.81900 0268 The Millennial Monument in Budapest as a Bearer of Memory, National Identity and Self-Awareness https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/81899 <p>In the 19th century, one of the most important national events in Hungary was the 1896 millennial celebration of the Hungarian conquest of the Carpathian Basin. A central act of the festivity’s symbolical episodes was the erection of the so-called Millennium Memorial (or Millennial Monument) at Heroes’ Square in Budapest. The monument consists of a colonnaded architectural framework that embraces a sculpture gallery featuring Hungarian leaders and rulers. My paper presents the history of the monument from concept to completion. Besides the artistic patterns of the architectural framework designed by Albert Schickedanz, special attention is given to the sculptures of the Hungarian sculptors who worked under the direction of the artist György Zala, as well as to the relations between the sculptors and the artistic scene of Vienna, and to the models they used. In addition to these primarily art historical aspects, my paper discusses the cultural context of the Memorial. It seeks answers to the questions of how the Memorial became a symbol of national identity already at the stage of planning and what ideas about the shaping of the national self-image defined the final form of the Memorial.</p> Gábor György Papp Copyright (c) 2021 Gábor Papp https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-07-10 2021-07-10 10.11588/riha.2021.1.81899 0267 Public Sculpture in Zagreb in the Second Half of the 19th Century https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/81898 <p>The Zagreb Green Horseshoe, or <em>Zelena potkova</em> in Croatian, is an original urban evocation of the Ringstraße in Vienna that represents an effort to create a characteristic urban space during the era of Historicism. This distinctive 19th century urban project provided an appropriate setting for monuments and sculptural decoration. Squares, parks and main streets thus became a stage where contemporaries encountered monuments to personalities whose memory was to be preserved. The evocation of historical figures as a part of the collective memory is one of the fundamental ideas behind erecting monuments in any public place. Zagreb, as a national metropolis, favoured monuments dedicated to persons who recalled the nation’s glorious past and to highly regarded individuals, artists and poets. This paper focuses on thirteen monuments that were erected from 1866 to 1914 in this model part of the city and discusses issues related to the clients, the artists and the individuals to whom they were dedicated. The monuments that extend along the <em>Zelena potkova</em> can match the monuments on the Ringstraße, both examples are part of a common heritage from the reign of Franz Joseph I of Austria.</p> Irena Kraševac Copyright (c) 2021 Irena Kraševac https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-07-10 2021-07-10 10.11588/riha.2021.1.81898 0266 The Habsburgs and Public Monuments in 19th-Century Croatia https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/81897 <p>This paper focuses on the analysis of the ways in which the cult of the Habsburg dynasty was promoted through public monuments in Croatia in the so-called Long 19th Century, from the end of the 18th to the early 20th century. Public sculpture in Croatia at this time was under a strong dominance of the national discourse – it mostly commemorated heroes of the Croatian cultural and sometimes also political history. Compared to the monuments to national heroes, the public monuments dedicated to members of the Habsburg family were smaller in number, and most often more modest in design and size. They can be divided into two basic groups – monuments commemorating events (<em>Ereignisdenkmäler</em>) from Croatian history connected with the Habsburgs, and monuments dedicated directly to individual members of the Habsburg family. The latter type of monuments is defined in this article in terms of what they commemorate and is divided into three groups: 1) monuments commemorating the role of the Habsburg emperors in the implementation of infrastructure projects, 2) monuments commemorating important anniversaries in the lives of individual members of the ruling house, and 3) monuments commemorating visits of Habsburgs to Croatia.</p> Dragan Damjanović Copyright (c) 2021 Dragan Damjanović https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-07-10 2021-07-10 10.11588/riha.2021.1.81897 0265 Czech Sculpture in the Late 19th and Early 20th Centuries and Its Attitude Towards Vienna https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/81896 <p>During the course of the 19th century, Czech society underwent an intensive process of national revival and emancipation from Vienna. This, of course, was also projected onto the field of visual arts: For a long time, under the influence of Czech nationalists, surveys of developments in the arts field did not include German-speaking artists from the Czech lands, such as the brothers Max and Franz Metzner or Hugo Lederer. Contacts between both individuals and institutions and Vienna thus became extremely complicated, and after 1900 they were generally considered undesirable by Czech nationalists. In 1902, the Mánes Fine Arts Association, which can take much of the credit for promoting modern art in the Czech milieu at that time, organized an exhibition in Prague of the works of Auguste Rodin, whose artistic style fundamentally influenced Czech sculpture in the first decade of the 20th century and disrupted the monopoly enjoyed until then by Josef Václav Myslbek. In contrast to Myslbek’s conventional equestrian monument to St Wenceslas, two other national monuments in Prague, the statues of Jan Hus (by Ladislav Šaloun) and of František Palacký (by Stanislav Sucharda) reflect the fascination with Rodinesque pathos at that time. The politically motivated suppression of contacts between the Czech milieu and Vienna and German-speaking countries on the one hand, and the support for intensive communication with Paris on the other, contributed to the progressive tendencies in Czech art before the First World War and to its exceptional plurality of styles.</p> Martin Krummholz Copyright (c) 2021 Martin Krummholz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-07-10 2021-07-10 10.11588/riha.2021.1.81896 0264 The Arts Policy of the Habsburg Empire in the Long 19th Century – "for the Good of Internal Peace within the Empire" https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/81894 <p>The ꞋLong 19th CenturyꞋ saw the development of modern arts policy in many European countries and also in the Habsburg monarchy. Although the creation of national codes was not yet completed at that time, the measures adopted for the promotion of the arts did play an important role in the cultural development of Central Europe at the turn of the century. In fact, the efforts of various generations of politicians and administrators aiming at creating some sort of cultural identification patterns, which were oriented to the common State, left their mark in the collective memory. Most notably, a remarkable effort was made to give broader parts of the population access to the arts. Hence, the promotion of the arts soon became one of the tasks of the modern "cultural State", whose effects were going to last beyond the end of the Monarchy. The basis for these common communication spaces was not to be found in a Habsburg-Austrian <em>"Leitkultur"</em> (core culture) focused on Vienna, but in the acceptance of the cultural diversity existing in this area.</p> Andreas Gottsmann Copyright (c) 2021 Andreas Gottsmann https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2021-07-10 2021-07-10 10.11588/riha.2021.1.81894