RIHA Journal https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal <p>RIHA, the International Association of Research Institutes in the History of Art, has launched the RIHA Journal in 2010. It is a peer-reviewed and <a href="https://open-access.net/informationen-zu-open-access">Open Access</a> e-journal devoted to the full range of the history of art and visual culture. The RIHA Journal especially welcomes papers on topics relevant from a supra-local perspective, articles that explore artistic interconnections or cultural exchanges, or engage with important theoretical questions that are apt to animate the discipline. Languages of publication are English, French, German, Italian, or Spanish.</p> International Association of Research Institutes in the History of Art - RIHA en-US RIHA Journal 2190-3328 0253 The Architecture of the Third Reich in Cracow – a Dissonant Heritage? https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/77095 <p>On 12 October 1939, Hitler signed a decree creating the <em>Generalgouvernement</em> (General Government), which comprised the Polish lands occupied by Germany but not subsumed directly into the Reich. Cracow became the capital of the General Government. This decided the fate of the city, for which the Nazi authorities had essentially predestined the role not only of capital of this <em>Nebenland</em>, but also that of a model German city in the East.<br>How, then, should we evaluate the contribution of the Third Reich to the shaping of Cracow's cultural landscape during the 1,961 days of the city's enforced status as capital? There is no unequivocal answer to this question, and the building stock left by the Germans in Cracow is extremely heterogeneous. We do have a certain number of intriguing examples of the dissonant heritage left by the German Third Reich in Cracow today. These represent above all a broad spectrum of conflicts of memory, and also the problem of non-memory.</p> Jacek Purchla Copyright (c) 2020 Jacek Purchla https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-12-21 2020-12-21 10.11588/riha.2020.0.77095 0252 Andrea e Jacopo Sansovino per gli Avis: i mausolei regali portoghesi nel contesto europeo https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/77027 <p lang="en-US" style="margin-bottom: 0.28cm;">The article investigates the involvement of Andrea and Jacopo Sansovino in the planning of the burials of two Portuguese kings, D. João II and D. Manuel I. Starting from a new reading of the sources and the modern bibliography, it aims to reconstruct the chronology and events by relocating the sculptors’ activity and the ambitions of the Avis sovereigns to royal mausoleums beyond Portugal, from Spain, to France, to England. The article also re-examines drawing 142 A, which today is in the Uffizi’s Gabinetto Disegni e Stampe, questioning its supposed relationship with those projects and with both artists’ production under the patronage of the Lusitanian kings.</p> Tommaso Mozzati Copyright (c) 0 2020-11-20 2020-11-20 10.11588/riha.2020.0.77027 Collecting Italian Art North of the Alps 1700–1800 https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/76611 Martin Olin Copyright (c) 0 2014-12-23 2014-12-23 0233 History of the Medieval Furnishings of the Franciscan Church in Toruń during the Reformation Period https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/76310 <p>The article investigates the history of the medieval interior design and furnishings of the former Franciscan Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Toruń during the Reformation period. The Franciscan Friars were brought to the Old Town of Toruń in 1239; they used the conventual complex until 1557, when it was taken over by the Protestant congregation of the City of Toruń, the former Franciscan Church becoming the major Protestant church both in Toruń and the surrounding region. In 1724, the former Franciscan complex was returned to the Observant Order, who added a number of serious alterations to the church’s interior (including the provision of eighteenth-century furnishings and altars with their retables, and the removal of an old rood screen, etc.). The article elucidates the way medieval interior design and furnishings—mural paintings, tomb slabs, the pulpit, the organ casing, and matronea—functioned in the lay area of the church when used by the Lutheran congregation. In addition, the following furnishings of the former monastic ecclesia interioris are discussed: the high altar and its retable, the medieval choir stalls, the rood screen, and the late medieval sculpture of the Crucified Christ. The analysis of the alterations added to the church’s interior demonstrates that measures undertaken when converting the church for the needs of the Protestant congregation were of a pragmatic rather than iconoclastic nature. The former Catholic and Franciscan medieval furnishings of the Church of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary were neither destroyed nor removed. What is more, whenever possible, they were used in a new interior design, and were either modernised or provided with inserts for the purpose.</p> Juliusz Raczkowski Copyright (c) 2020 Juliusz Raczkowski https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 10.11588/riha.2019.0.76310 0232 Losy średniowiecznego wyposażenia kościoła toruńskich franciszkanów w czasach Reformacji https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/76308 <p>Artykuł poświęcony jest dziejom średniowiecznych elementów wystroju i wyposażenia kościoła franciszkańskiego kościoła poklasztornego pw. Wniebowzięcia NMP w Toruniu w czasach Reformacji. Franciszkanie, sprowadzeni do Starego Miasta Torunia w 1239 roku, użytkowali budowlę do roku 1557, kiedy to klasztor został przejęty przez protestancką gminę miasta Torunia, a kościół poklasztorny stał się główną świątynią protestancką Torunia i regionu. Od 1724 roku założenie pofranciszkańskie odzyskali bernardyni, którzy dokonali poważnych zmian w przestrzeni kościoła (w tym: fundacja późnonowożytnych sprzętów, ołtarzy wraz z nastawami, usunięcie dawnego lektorium itd.) W artykule poruszone są kwestie funkcjonowania średniowiecznych elementów wystroju i wyposażenia przestrzeni laickiej wnętrz w czasach użytkowania go przez luteran (losy malowideł ściennych, płyt nagrobnych, ambony, prospektu organowego, empor). Osobno omówione zostały elementy zagospodarowania i wyposażenia dawnej franciszkańskiej ecclesiae interioris: problem ołtarza głównego i jego retabulum, zespół średniowiecznych stall zakonnych, lektorium i późnośredniowieczna rzeźby Ukrzyżowanego. Jak wynika z analiz dokonywanych we wnętrzu przekształceń, działania podjęte w ramach dostosowania go do zmiany konfesyjnej przez protestantów miały charakter pragmatyczny, a nie obrazoburczy. Średniowieczne, pokatolickie i pofranciszkańskie obiekty w kościele Wniebowzięcia NMP nie tylko nie zostały usunięte czy zniszczone, ale w miarę możliwości wykorzystano je w nowej aranżacji wnętrza, dostosowując do nieco innych potrzeb, modernizując i uzupełniając.</p> Juliusz Raczkowski Copyright (c) 2020 Juliusz Raczkowski https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 10.11588/riha.2019.0.76308 0234 Parafrazy biedermeieru w meblarstwie polskim początku XX wieku i w dwudziestoleciu międzywojennym https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/76298 <p>W artykule omówione zostały inspiracje stylem biedermeier w polskim meblarstwie na początku XX wieku. Zaprezentowano je na tle fascynacji tym stylem w Europie Środkowej, wskazano także jak biedermeier odczytywany był przez projektantów i krytyków. Następnie przytoczono przykłady projektów mebli i wnętrz, nawiązujących do biedermeieru, autorstwa twórców związanych między innymi z Towarzystwem Polska Sztuka Stosowana. Zasygnalizowano również jak biedermeier oddziaływał na polskie projektowanie mebli w dwudziestoleciu międzywojennym.</p> Agata Wójcik Copyright (c) 0 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 10.11588/riha.2019.0.76298 0235 Paraphrases of Biedermeier in Polish Furniture Designs in the Early Twentieth Century and Interwar Years https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/76297 <p>The article aims to describe the ways in which Biedermeier inspired Polish furniture makers in the early twentieth century and in the interwar years. Until recently, vernacularism was believed to have dominated Polish furniture designs from that time. The revival of Biedermeier has already been analysed by researchers focusing on German, Austrian, or Czech furniture designs. By presenting Polish designs (created by a number of artists, including those of the Towarzystwo Polska Sztuka Stosowana [Polish Applied Arts Society]), this article seeks to contribute to a discussion on the influence of Biedermeier in Central Europe.</p> Agata Wójcik Copyright (c) 2020 https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-12-30 2019-12-30 10.11588/riha.2019.0.76297 0251 La guerre des brevets : histoire et produits de la manufacture de papiers peints Paul Balin https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/76112 <p>Paul Balin, the head of one of the most famous French wallpaper manufactories from the second half of the 19th century, championed historicism in the wallpaper domain. Having taken over the Genoux manufacture in 1863, he was awarded at the 1867 Paris World Exhibition and again in Vienna in 1873. His relentless endeavor to improve the embossing process, the use of metallic finishes and the imitations of textiles had led him to file up to 15 patents between 1866 and 1884. His manufacturing processes were exclusively pre-industrial methods, executed by hand. A stubborn and fierce competitor, he brought infringement lawsuits against the whole profession from 1876 until at least 1885. Several European museums keep his productions, among which three collections have been acquired directly after his Grand diplôme d’honneur award in Vienna.</p> Wivine Wailliez Véronique De Bruignac-La Hougue Copyright (c) 2020-09-14 2020-09-14 10.11588/riha.2020.0.76112 0250 Synthetic Cubism at War: New Necessities, New Challenges https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/76083 <p>When we talk about the Synthetic Cubism period, what exactly are we referring to? What aesthetic possibilities and considerations define it insofar as its origin and later evolution are concerned? To what extent did the disorder that the Great War unleashed, with all its political, sociological and moral demands, influence the reformulation of a purely synthetic syntax? This article attempts to answer these and other questions relating to the sociological-aesthetic interferences that would influence the Parisian Cubist style of the war years, and in particular the works of Juan Gris, María Blanchard, Jacques Lipchitz and Jean Metzinger during the spring and summer that they shared with one another in 1918, until it consolidated into what we now know as Crystal Cubism.</p> Belén Atencia Conde-Pumpido Copyright (c) 2020 Belén Atencia Conde-Pumpido https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-09-02 2020-09-02 10.11588/riha.2020.0.76083 0249 Terrified by the Close Other. Is the Postwar History of German Art Ready to Embrace "State Functionaries"? https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/76082 <p>The article sets out to investigate the fundamental problem for the methodology of postwar German art history, namely, the unavoidable fusion of two markedly different perspectives, i.e., those of East and West Germany, into a coherent narrative. The reconstruction of key exhibitions and controversies sparked by East German art, in 1989 and beyond, suggests that the revision of the canon of art history may be faced with greater challenges whenever adopting the perspective of the close Other (political or ideological), rather than that of a remote Other (ethnic or cultural). The incorporation of the close Other into a uniform narrative on art history can be a moot point, most notably in those cases where the western concept of art calls for a necessary restatement, and one's identity needs to be critically redefined in the process. This is best exemplified by what happened in Germany after 1989.</p> Justyna Balisz-Schmelz Copyright (c) 2020 Justyna Balisz-Schmelz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-08-31 2020-08-31 10.11588/riha.2020.0.76082 0248 Strach przed bliskim Innym. Czy w powojennej historii sztuki niemieckiej jest miejsce na "funkcjonariuszy państwowych"? https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/76081 <p>Artykuł skupia się na zasadniczym problemie metodologicznym powojennej historii sztuki niemieckiej jakim jest konieczność połączenia w spójną narrację dwóch diametralnie odmiennych perspektyw: wschodnio i zachodnioniemieckiej. Rekonstrukcje kluczowych wystaw oraz kontrowersji narosłych wokół sztuki wschodnioniemieckiej po 1989 roku wskazują na to, że rewizja kanonu historyczno-artystycznego może napotykać na znacznie większe trudności wówczas, gdy wymaga to nie tyle przyjęcia perspektywy dalekiego Innego (etnicznego, kulturowego), lecz uwzględnienia perspektywy bliskiego Innego (politycznego, ideologicznego). Przykład Niemiec po 1989 roku pokazuje jak problematyczne bywa włączenie takiej bliskiej Inności do jednej narracji historyczno-artystycznej zwłaszcza wówczas, gdy zachodzi przy tym konieczność przewartościowania wykształconego na Zachodzie pojęcia sztuki, a także krytycznego przemyślenia na nowo własnej tożsamości.</p> Justyna Balisz-Schmelz Copyright (c) 2020 Justyna Balisz-Schmelz https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-08-31 2020-08-31 10.11588/riha.2020.0.76081 0247 Installation: Genre, Medium, or What? https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/76080 <p>Since its emergence at the international scene in the 1970s, installation has been one of the artforms central to the contemporary art system. Yet at the theoretical level the issue of its categorial framework remains unresolved, which in turn reflects the situation within contemporary art’s categoriality in general. Concepts and terms such as "genre", "medium", "intermediality", "post-medium" and "postconceptual" condition have all been applied to installation art. This article attempts to analyze whether these labels are appropriate to the installation art phenomenon, especially with regard to the recent developments within genre, literary and media studies. Hence, the article provides the historical and modern definitions of the terms, while special attention is paid to their usage within art history and installation art discourse. The resulting conclusions are intended to situate installation art within a viable categorial framework and to shed light on several areas of contemporary art categoriality at large.</p> Svetlana Makeeva Copyright (c) 2020 Svetlana Makeeva https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-07-15 2020-07-15 10.11588/riha.2020.0.76080 Contemporary Art and Memory https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/76062 Katarzyna Jagodzińska Copyright (c) 2020 Katarzyna Jagodzińska https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2014-12-31 2014-12-31 10.11588/riha.2014.3.76062 0246 I disegni del Familienarchiv Harrach di Vienna per la committenza artistica nella Sala dei Viceré del Palazzo Reale di Napoli https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/76054 <p>The seventeenth-century Sala dei Viceré of the Royal Palace in Naples, currently known as the Salone d’Ercole, derived its original name from the full-length portraits of the Spanish viceroys who governed the city of Naples for two centuries. The Austrian viceroys, who reigned from 1707 to 1734, also made their contribution to the decoration of the room. From several sources we know that Count Wirich Philipp Lorenz von Daun, who governed as the viceroy of Naples from 1707 to 1708 and again from 1713 to 1719, commissioned the painter Paolo de Matteis to retouch the already extant portraits and to carry out new portraits, as well as an equestrian fresco of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles VI of Habsburg. Due to the loss of the original decoration (i.e., the portraits and the fresco) and also the lack of related visual and archival documents, it was not previously possible to carry out a diachronic study of this important commission to De Matteis in the Sala dei Viceré. The discovery of new documents in the Vienna State Archives, and of two drawings of the Sala dei Viceré in the Familienarchiv Harrach in Vienna, however, has enabled a reassessment of Paolo de Matteis’ fresco work in this room, and the terms of the commission to him.</p> Ilaria Telesca Copyright (c) 2020 Ilaria Telesca https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-06-20 2020-06-20 10.11588/riha.2020.0.76054 0243 Il volto di Bologna. Immagini, tradizioni e luoghi di una nazione a Roma https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/76053 <p>This paper aims to define the role of the Bolognese 'nation' in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Rome. The church of Saints John the Evangelist and Petronius, built in 1576 under the Bolognese Pope Gregory XIII, represents the first instance of this congregation's architectural presence in the Eternal City. The community began defining its unique character through a specific figurative language, stimulated by the need to express its own spirituality and local culture as well as to celebrate the role played by a number of famous Bolognese citizens within the congregation and in the Roman Curia. A detailed analysis of the decorative and liturgical programme of this church, as well as archival research in various Bolognese and Roman institutions shed light on the religious, social and artistic practices through which this 'nation' aimed to express its identity.</p> Giulia Iseppi Copyright (c) 2020 Giulia Iseppi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 10.11588/riha.2020.1.76053 0242 San Girolamo degli Schiavoni/ Illyrians/ Croats in 'Roma communis patria': Constructing National Identity Through Papal Interventions https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/76052 <p>This essay examines the positioning of the Schiavoni, i.e. Illyrians/ Croats, within Roma communis patria in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries through papal commissions of architecture and painting related to the church of San Girolamo degli Schiavoni. It assesses the gestures made by Nicholas V and Sixtus V towards this particular ethnic group against the background of papal foreign policy and the Papacy’s approach to the urban problems of Rome, and explores the promotion of the cults of national saints. The disentanglement of the group’s dynamics and its interplay with the Curia not only sheds light on the minute mechanisms of artistic and architectural patronage as they relate to 'national' churches, but also redefines the approach to identity issues often understood as exclusively powered by 'national' forces.</p> Jasenka Gudelj Copyright (c) 2020 Jasenka Gudelj https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 10.11588/riha.2020.1.76052 0241 National Religiosity and Visual Propaganda: the Spanish Church of the Saints Ildephonsus and Thomas of Villanova in Rome https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/76050 <p>The construction of the church of Sts Ildephonsus and Thomas of Villanova on the Via Sistina in Rome began in 1667. Headquarters of the Spanish Discalced Augustinians in Rome, the church was directly inspired by Francesco Borromini's Chapel of the Three Magi (Cappella dei Re Magi), and its artistic iconography featured a comprehensive program of Spanish political propaganda. The church was decorated as a monument to the Immaculate Conception, the favoured devotional cult of the Spanish monarchy, and its Marian content was reinforced by the paintings of the Virgins of Copacabana and Guadalupe, patrons of Peru and Mexico respectively. The entire ensemble, including the dedication of the church to the Spanish saints Ildephonsus and Thomas of Villanova, transformed the temple into a celebration of the Iberian monarchy.</p> Pablo González Tornel Copyright (c) 2020 Pablo González Tornel https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 10.11588/riha.2020.1.76050 0240 Il caso di Sant'Atanasio dei greci a Roma tra universalismo riformato e liturgia greca https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/76049 <p>The essay traces the circumstances of the construction of S. Atanasio, the church of the Greeks in Rome, which was built at the behest of pope Gregory XIII Boncompagni by the architect Giacomo della Porta. Although founded with the intention of representing the universalist policies of Gregory XIII, S. Atanasio assumed its definitive identity often in contrast to the wishes of its cardinal protectors and of the pontiff himself. The singular architectural design and the interior decoration are reinterpreted here in light of new documents in which Greek-Byzantine liturgy and culture are essential reference points for the community that formed in the Greek college and for the solutions adopted in an attempt to reconcile the Greek and Latin rites.</p> Camilla S. Fiore Copyright (c) 2020 Camilla S. Fiore https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 10.11588/riha.2020.1.76049 0239 La chiesa dei Ss. Faustino e Giovita dei Bresciani a Roma https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/76048 <p>The church of Ss. Faustino and Giovita in Rome was built by the Brescian confraternity in 1575, after they obtained the necessary papal permit for an intervention within the ruins of an unfinished palace of justice (palazzo dei Tribunali) by Donato Bramante. This space played an important role in Rome’s public life, as during the sixteenth century theatrical productions were staged within its walls and one of the first Tiber traghetto dockings was situated nearby. The Brescian community also established a national hospice within the ruins, which was demolished, together with their church, during the late nineteenth-century rebuilding of the Tiber banks. This paper investigates the notion of identity of the Brescian "Nation" (the city of Brescia being ruled by the Republic of Venice, which itself was represented in Rome through different buildings and institutions). It focuses on the activity of Carlo Fontana, the official architect of both the Serenissima and the Brescian confraternity, who designed the new façade of the church of Ss. Faustino and Giovita, as well as many new features of the Venetian embassy in Rome, now known as Palazzo Venezia. Fontana also designed projects in Brescia and neighbouring towns such as Bergamo and Como, as well as different projects in the Veneto, which will be explored here from a comparative perspective.</p> Giuseppe Bonaccorso Copyright (c) 2020 Giuseppe Bonaccorso https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 10.11588/riha.2020.1.76048 0238 "Belonging of right to our English nation". The Oratory of Domine Quo Vadis, Reginald Pole, and the English Hospice in Rome https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/76047 <p>Located in Rome, at the Appian Way, the oratory of Domine Quo Vadis is a circular domed building that has heretofore been dated to Julius III's pontificate (1550–1555) and associated with Cardinal Reginald Pole's patronage. In addition to confirming the role of Reginald Pole, new documentary evidence proves both an earlier date of construction and the involvement in the works of the English Hospice as financial contributor. Considering the cultural and political climate, the Anglo-Roman relations, and the institutional background, this article deals with the oratory as a materialization of the emerging identity of English Catholics in Rome.</p> Andrea Bacciolo Copyright (c) 2020 Andrea Bacciolo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2020-03-30 2020-03-30 10.11588/riha.2020.1.76047