RIHA Journal https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal <p>RIHA, the International Association of Research Institutes in the History of Art, has launched the RIHA Journal in 2010. It is a peer-reviewed and <a href="https://open-access.net/informationen-zu-open-access">Open Access</a> e-journal devoted to the full range of the history of art and visual culture. The RIHA Journal especially welcomes papers on topics relevant from a supra-local perspective, articles that explore artistic interconnections or cultural exchanges, or engage with important theoretical questions that are apt to animate the discipline. Languages of publication are English, French, German, Italian, or Spanish.</p> International Association of Research Institutes in the History of Art - RIHA en-US RIHA Journal 2190-3328 0298 War Painting and the Soldier as the New Man https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/94570 <p class="Abstract-text"><span lang="EN-US">With his series of pilot portraits during the First World War, the Viennese painter Karl Sterrer made a significant contribution to the depiction of a modern heroic figure. It has not yet been analysed in the context of the modern soldier and his masculinity, which came under strain in the brutal trench warfare. At the mercy of an abstract war machine, the common soldiers could hardly find heroic moments to impress. Only a few new types of troops, such as the aviators, succeeded in doing so, which gave them a great deal of public recognition and made them part of modern visual culture. Ultimately, they were seen as New Man, above the horrors of modern warfare. At the same time, they were also role models for a noble habitus that met the phenomena of modernity calmly. This aspiration was evident in their elegant countenance, their extraordinary physiognomy. Unlike previous attempts in art history, however, this article provides a look at the conservative take on the subject – by a traditional, academic artist. This focus underlines the extent to which old and new soldierly values overlapped in modernity and became actualised by different artists regardless of their political orientation. The same applies to the stylistic realisation, which intertwines traditional elements with those of new movements such as New Objectivity.</span></p> Christian Drobe Copyright (c) 2023 Christian Drobe https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-06-09 2023-06-09 10.11588/riha.2023.1.94570 0297 Aristide Maillol aux États-Unis https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/94030 <p>Aristide Maillol is the 20th-century French sculptor best represented in American collections. In 1925–1926, his works were shown in museums in eleven cities as part of an exhibition organized by A. Conger Goodyear: Albright Art Gallery, Museum of Modern Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art… This article traces the artist’s reception on the other side of the Atlantic and, based on a study of correspondence, highlights the role of major museum figures such as Alfred Barr, Andrew Carnduff Ritchie, and John Rewald, particularly through exhibitions, but also of dealers, especially Joseph Brummer, who helped to develop the sculptor’s American presence. These sources reveal the sometimes difficult negotiations. They also attest to the active role played by Dina Vierny, his last model and then his successor, after Maillol’s death. With the support of dealers, including Paul Rosenberg, Klaus Perls, and Otto Gerson, she significantly expanded his presence in American collections.</p> Antoinette Le Normand-Romain Copyright (c) 2023 Antoinette Le Normand-Romain https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-05-09 2023-05-09 10.11588/riha.2023.1.94030 0295 Notes on the Early Provenance of Paolo Veronese’s Saint Catherine of Alexandria in Prison https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/93676 <p>This article provides information about the early provenance of the Paolo Veronese painting entitled <em>Saint Catherine of Alexandria in Prison</em> in The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York. The painting can most likely be traced back to sixteenth- and seventeenth-century Augsburg. Descriptions that match the Veronese painting are found in the inventories of two very wealthy Augsburg merchants: one is in the <em>post mortem</em> inventory of Octavian Secundus Fugger (ca. 1600/1601), the other in a list of works of art from the collection of Hans Steininger (ca. 1641/42). Octavian Secundus Fugger only occasionally bought paintings from Venice, never seeking to amass a systematic collection of art. The deeply religious Catholic merchant, who was a strong supporter of the Jesuits, hung his picture of Saint Catherine, along with other religious paintings, in the antechapel of his house, and it remained at this location until the early 17th century. The painting’s later owner, however, the Lutheran textile merchant Hans Steininger, was a highly educated art collector who created one of the most illustrious collections in Augsburg. In his <em>Kunstkammer</em>, Veronese’s painting was displayed in the company of mythological female figures, nymphs, and Venus, accompanied by a whole series of paintings by renowned artists such as Hans von Aachen, Christoph Amberger, Paris Bordone, Hans Burgkmair, Joseph Heintz and Titian. Steininger’s collection was dispersed after his death, but many of the paintings he owned can still be identified. Veronese’s <em>Saint Catherine of Alexandria</em> may be one of them.</p> Orsolya Bubryák Copyright (c) 2023 Orsolya Bubryák https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-02-10 2023-02-10 10.11588/riha.2023.1.93676 0288 The Annihilation of the German Numismatic Market during the Nazi Era, with Some Observations on the Countermeasures Adopted by Jewish Ancient Coin Dealers https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/92804 <p>This paper shows that the Nazi persecution of Jewish coin dealers and collectors prominent in Germany’s economic and cultural life resulted in a weakening of the domestic numismatic market. The failure of Nazi cultural-economic policy is illustrated by a study of the trade in ancient coins. While the Nazi authorities (e.g., Foreign Exchange Offices, Customs) failed to prevent the export of numismatic assets, the most prominent Jewish dealers were able to reestablish their businesses abroad, especially in Switzerland as the new international trading center for ancient coins. Their non-Jewish German colleagues, in turn, had great difficulty filling the gaps in the supply of ancient coins in the German Reich left by the Jews who had emigrated or fled.</p> Emanuele Sbardella Copyright (c) 2022 Emanuele Sbardella https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 10.11588/riha.2022.2.92804 0291 "Unclaimed" Artworks Entrusted to French Museums after World War II https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/92790 <p align="justify">Between 1949 and 1953, about 2,100 “unclaimed” artworks returned to France from Germany after World War II were selected by museum professionals and labeled MNR (Musées nationaux récupération). About half of the works are paintings, while thirty percent are decorative arts, and the remaining pieces are drawings, sculptures, folk art, Asian art, and antiquities. This paper presents the so-called AOR (Antiquités orientales récupération), 31 objects entrusted to the care of the Département des Antiquités orientales, Musée du Louvre, which at the time included both pre-Islamic and Islamic objects. Research carried out by the <em>Mission Mattéoli</em> (1997–2000) determined that only two, maybe three, artworks are proven to have been looted by the <em>Einsatzstab Reich</em><em>s</em><em>leiter Rosenberg</em> during the Nazi occupation of France. The rest of the AOR items were purchases made by German individuals and museums, confirming that the MNR corpus does not equate in its entirety to art plundered from Jewish collections. The study of this portion of the works is an opportunity to shed light on the Near Eastern art and antiquities market in Paris during the war.</p> Anne Dunn-Vaturi François Bridey Gwenaëlle Fellinger Copyright (c) 2022 Anne Dunn-Vaturi, François Bridey, Gwenaëlle Fellinger https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 10.11588/riha.2022.2.92790 0290 The Antiquities Trade during the German Occupation of France, 1940–1944 https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/92784 <p lang="en-US" align="justify">Despite the confiscation of many art collections, mainly from Jewish families, the Parisian art market was prosperous during the German occupation of France, from 1940 to 1944. This boom was also driven by the vast number of purchases made by German museums. After the war, most of these acquisitions were returned to France, with postwar investigations focusing on the recovery of paintings. The lack of interest in other types of art may explain, at least in part, why the acquisitions made by the Staatliche Museen zu Berlin during the Occupation have been ignored for so long. Mainly antiquities, they are still part of the collections today. As this case study of the holdings of the Ägyptisches Museum in Berlin shows, these acquisitions can serve as a starting point for learning more about the antiquities dealers active during the Occupation.</p> Mattes Lammert Copyright (c) 2022 Mattes Lammert https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 10.11588/riha.2022.2.92784 0289 The Patronage of Berlin’s Egyptian Museum by German-Jewish Press Tycoon Rudolf Mosse (1843–1920) and the Sequestration of His Art Collection during the "Third Reich" https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/92780 <p lang="en-US" align="justify"><span style="color: #000000;">The publishing tycoon Rudolf Mosse (1843–1920) donated over 700 objects to the Egyptian Museum in Berlin between 1892 and 1894, among them the Green Head from a royal statue of Amasis (ÄM 11864). Most had been acquired on the antiquities market by Egyptologist Heinrich Brugsch (1827–1894) during his journey to Egypt in 1891–1892, which was financed by Mosse. Leaving aside postcolonial discourse regarding the appropriation of ancient Egyptian artifacts by European travelers and scholars, this case study highlights another important and long-neglected aspect of the early history of German Egyptology: patronage or private support provided by Jewish entrepreneurs. Only recently a wider public was reminded of the engagement of James Simon (1851–1932), the most </span><span style="color: #000000;">significant sponsor of the <em>Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft</em> (German Oriental Society), whose gifts to the Egyptian Museum in Berlin included the painted bust of Queen Nefertiti. This article—which is based on the findings of a multi-author volume published jointly by the Moses Mendelssohn Center for European-Jewish Studies in Potsdam and the Egyptian Museum in Berlin—discusses the prehistory of the seizure and sale of Mosse’s private art collection in 1934, including Egyptian antiquities, and the attempted <em>damnatio memoriae</em> of him. The goal is to open a discussion with a broader, more complex approach, employing strategies of provenance research, to document the efforts and achievements of Jewish patrons of the arts and thus avoid their reduction to victims.</span></p> Thomas L. Gertzen Jana Helmbold-Doyé Copyright (c) 2022 Thomas L. Gertzen , Jana Helmbold-Doyé https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 10.11588/riha.2022.2.92780 0292 The Fate of the Antiquities Collection of Izabela Działyńska (neé Czartoryska) https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/92774 <p>The collection of antiquities displayed at Gołuchów castle in Poland by Izabela Działyńska was one of the largest private collections in Europe of ancient works of art from the Middle East, Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Ancient pottery, stelae from Cyprus, fragments of Roman marble sculpture, and a large collection of ancient Egyptian artifacts were exhibited in the Greek Vases Hall, the Antiquities Hall, and the Egyptian Hall. The invasion of Poland by Nazi troops on 1 September 1939 and the attack of Soviet troops on 17 September started a two-front war in Poland. On 28 September 1939, the German-Soviet Frontier and Friendship Treaty was signed, marking the border between the two aggressors on Polish lands along the line of the rivers San-Bug-Narew-Pisa. This division of Poland continued until the German invasion of the USSR in June 1941. As a result of these wartime events, the collection of Izabela Działyńska was dispersed. Many of the objects are now in various museums in Poland, but some, including ancient artefacts and other valuable works of art, are considered lost. It cannot be ruled out that some were destroyed.</p> Inga Głuszek Michał Krueger Copyright (c) 2022 Inga Głuszek, Michał Krueger https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 10.11588/riha.2022.2.92774 0287 Export Regulations and the Role of Ancient Objects in the German List of Nationally Important Artworks https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/92771 <p lang="en-US" align="justify">The paper provides a brief overview of art export regulations in the Mediterranean region from the 19th century to the laws adopted in the 1920s and 1930s. It then focuses on the German law of 1919 requiring works of art that were predominantly privately owned and of outstanding value to be entered in a register, the so-called List of Nationally Important Artworks. Once the works were listed in this index, they were subject to authorization for export. Despite the high importance the National Socialists attributed to Greek and Roman art as an eternal art, only one percent of the artworks that were classified as nationally valuable were from ancient periods. The instrumentalization of the export regulation through the National Socialist regime is illustrated by the example of Albert Lévy’s collection of antiquities in Hamburg. For provenance research, it is essential to determine how laws were extended, applied, bypassed, or overruled during National Socialism and, thus, instrumentalized as a means of state power.</p> Maria Obenaus Copyright (c) 2022 Maria Obenaus https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 10.11588/riha.2022.2.92771 0286 Stolen and Returned: The Marble Statue of "Philippe" from Samos https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/92770 <p>For almost a year, from November 1943 to October 1944, the Greek island of Samos was under German occupation. General Friedrich-Wilhelm Müller, who was responsible for Samos, ruthlessly exploited his position of power and attempted to secretly take the <em>Philippe</em>, a female statue of the so-called Geneleos Group, out of the country. Fortunately, this criminal action and the planned transport of the statue to Trier were prevented by the Kunstschutz of the Wehrmacht. Finally, in 1954, the <em>Philippe</em> was returned from the Athens National Museum to Samos, where it is now exhibited in the archaeological museum of Vathi. The adventure of the <em>Philippe</em> statue sheds light on the situation of the antiquities on Samos during the German occupation. Selected sources will also be used to show how the Kunstschutz officers proceeded in their rescue operations and how they themselves defined their role as part of the German Wehrmacht after the war.</p> Alexandra Kankeleit Copyright (c) 2022 Alexandra Kankeleit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 10.11588/riha.2022.2.92770 0285 Göring’s Collection of Antiquities at Carinhall https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/92769 <p lang="en-US" align="justify">This article deals with some ancient objects from the collection of leading National Socialist Hermann Göring that are on loan to the Berlin Antikensammlung from the Bundesrepublik Deutschland. Originally, they were stored or displayed at Carinhall, Göring’s estate ca. 60 km from Berlin, where he kept his precious works of art. The antiquities were not the most important part of his collection. However, some interesting questions arise about the provenance of the objects and the reasons why he displayed certain archaeological objects in Carinhall.</p> Laura Puritani Copyright (c) 2022 Laura Puritani https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 10.11588/riha.2022.2.92769 0284 The Role of Antiquities between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/92761 <p>This article analyzes the antiquities trade between Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany in the construction of the two regimes’ diplomatic relationship before and during World War II. Both regimes made antiquities a medium of their political and ideological propaganda. During the delicate stages of their alliance in and after 1936, the Fascist regime, which considered itself the legitimate heir of the ancient Roman Empire, intensified the promotion of its role as a leading arbiter of cultural matters. A sense of Italian cultural superiority underlay the antiquities gifted or authorized for export to fulfill the Nazi leaders’ requests. Alongside this ‘legitimate’ trade, many other antiquities were illegally exported, sold, or stolen by art dealers, troops, and common citizens. Drawing on intense archival research conducted in Italian archives, the article presents different cases that shed light on the ways in which antiquities were manipulated for ideological and political purposes by the Fascist and Nazi regimes.</p> Daria Brasca Copyright (c) 2022 Daria Brasca https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 10.11588/riha.2022.2.92761 0294 A Goddess of the Night, a Roman Gem, and the Bachstitz Gallery https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/92750 <p class="Abstract-text">Two Roman objects in the J. Paul Getty Museum, a bronze statuette of the moon goddess Luna and a cornelian gem, were among the handful of classical antiquities acquired for Adolf Hitler’s unrealized "Führermuseum" in Linz. This study presents new provenance research that tracks their itinerary from European private collections to the gallery of Kurt Walter Bachstitz, a prominent Jewish art dealer active in The Hague between the 1920s and the 1940s. His precarious personal and business relationships with German art agents expose how ordinary commerce was entangled with coerced sales in the Nazi-occupied Netherlands. In 2015, the ownership of works that changed hands on wartime art markets informed the Dutch Restitution Committee’s recommendation to return the gem to Bachstitz’s heirs but to reject their claim on the statuette. Having passed through several collections following their restitution after World War II, the two objects were reunited at the Getty in 2017.</p> Claire L. Lyons Copyright (c) 2022 Claire L. Lyons https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 10.11588/riha.2022.2.92750 0293 A Case Study in Plunder and Restitution https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/92737 <p>In this article I examine the methodology and resources used to trace the provenance of three ancient Greek and Roman sculptures in the collection of the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston (MFA). They belonged to Karol Lanckoroński (1848–1933) of Vienna, were looted during the Nazi era, and were returned to the Lanckoroński family following World War II. In discussing these sculptures, I consider the relative challenges of researching ancient works of art compared to Modern and Early Modern European paintings and sculptures, drawing on other case studies of Nazi-era looting from the collection of the MFA.</p> Victoria S. Reed Copyright (c) 2022 Victoria S. Reed https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 10.11588/riha.2022.2.92737 0283 Collecting Classical Antiquities among the Nazi Elite https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/92736 <p>Classical antiquity was appropriated by the Nazis and held up as the ideal in the rhetoric, propaganda, art, and architecture of National Socialism. In this article the rhetoric and preference for the classical aesthetic are examined against the practice of collecting antiquities among the Nazi elite, especially by Hitler and Göring. It would seem evident that Greek and Roman antiquities would have been much desired by Hitler and the upper echelons of the Nazi party and would have been sought after in the quest for great works of art for museums in the Reich, especially for the “Führermuseum” in Linz. Yet, there is only limited evidence to show that this was, in fact, the case. Insights and explanations for this discrepancy are gleaned from synthesizing the evidence for collecting classical antiquities during the Nazi era.</p> Irene Bald Romano Copyright (c) 2022 Irene Bald Romano https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 10.11588/riha.2022.2.92736 0282 Antiquities in the Nazi Era: Contexts and Broader View https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/92735 <p class="Abstract-text"><span lang="EN-US">This introduction presents an overview of the research questions and the challenges involved in studying the fate of Middle Eastern, Egyptian, Greek, Etruscan, and Roman antiquities during the Nazi era. Since the antiquities markets and the methods of trade, disappearance, and confiscation of ancient archaeological objects varied a great deal across Europe and the Middle East during the Nazi period, this article examines the evidence in individual countries, both in source countries where the archaeological objects originated and in market countries where antiquities were collected, traded, or confiscated—including the United States. Finally, some conclusions gleaned from this broader study are presented, including from the articles in this special issue.</span></p> Irene Bald Romano Copyright (c) 2022 Irene Bald Romano https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 10.11588/riha.2022.2.92735 Preface https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/92734 <p>This publication was inspired by the 2017–2019 German/American Provenance Research Exchange Program (PREP) and is a direct outcome of a PREP public session on "The Fate of Antiquities in the Nazi Era" held at the Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte in Munich on 10 October 2018. A number of the authors contributing to this volume participated in the PREP workshops over the three-year period or were organizers or hosts in New York, Los Angeles, Washington, DC, Berlin, Munich, and Dresden. PREP created a cohort of museum professionals and scholars in Germany and the US and stimulated an exchange of ideas and information on provenance studies of the Nazi period, creating collegial relationships that are furthering the field of provenance studies. The authors of this publication represent museums, universities, and research institutes in the US, Germany, France, Greece, Italy, and Poland and extend the original PREP network.</p> Irene Bald Romano Copyright (c) 2022 Irene Bald Romano https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 10.11588/riha.2022.2.92734 Foreword https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/92733 <p>The German/American Provenance Research Exchange Program (PREP; 2017–2019) was jointly initiated and organized by the Smithsonian Institution and the Stiftung Preußischer Kulturbesitz. Although in the past decades, research into Nazi-era looted art has been widespread and provenance research in this field has blossomed, the fate of antiquities has rarely been in the spotlight and is far less systematically studied. This volume makes a large contribution to filling this void. The real strength of this publication is, however, that it brings together so many different facets from which a bigger picture emerges. It is valuable not just for readers with an interest in antiquities but also for scholars studying the art market and its mechanisms; for researchers exploring the networks and systems by which artworks were dispersed during the Nazi era and studying the history of restitution; and for art historians interested in the history of collecting and taste.</p> Hermann Parzinger Copyright (c) 2022 Hermann Parzinger https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 10.11588/riha.2022.2.92733 Foreword https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/92732 <p>Dealing with objects and collections inevitably touches on complex and sensitive issues of individual or private, but also institutional, collective or national identity. Information about the provenance of an object is therefore often limited to institutional or national boundaries. Among the many commendable initiatives, the German/American Provenance Research Exchange Program (PREP; 2017–2019) stands out as a transdisciplinary and, above all, transnational effort to overcome the aforementioned boundaries. As one of the six PREP partners, the Zentralinstitut für Kunstgeschichte (ZI) in Munich is proud to have been instrumental in the application and subsequent implementation of the program. In October 2018, the ZI hosted the second PREP meeting and the public colloquium on Nazi-era translocations and dispossessions of ancient Mediterranean and Middle Eastern artifacts proposed by Irene Bald Romano, on which this special issue is based.</p> Christian Fuhrmeister Copyright (c) 2022 Christian Fuhrmeister https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 10.11588/riha.2022.2.92732 The Fate of Antiquities in the Nazi Era https://journals.ub.uni-heidelberg.de/index.php/rihajournal/article/view/92729 <p>This publication was inspired by the 2017–2019 German/American Provenance Research Exchange Program (PREP). It is a direct outcome of a PREP public session on "The Fate of Antiquities in the Nazi Era" proposed by Irene Bald Romano, professor at the University of Arizona and curator of Mediterranean archaeology in the Arizona State Museum in Tucson, AZ. A number of the authors contributing to this volume participated in the PREP workshops over the three-year period or were organizers or hosts in New York, Los Angeles, Washington, DC, Berlin, Munich, and Dresden. However, Irene Bald Romano, as guest editor, has solicited additional contributions from other experts in the field, making this special issue more than ordinary conference proceedings. The authors of this publication extend the original PREP network and represent museums, universities, and research institutes in France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland and the US.</p> Copyright (c) 2022 Irene Bald Romano https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2023-09-25 2023-09-25 10.11588/riha.2022.2.92729