The Incidence of Lucid Dreaming within a Japanese University Student Sample
The present study investigated the incidence of lucid dreaming within a Japanese university student sample. From 153 Japanese students 47% reported experiencing a lucid dream at least once and 19% were frequent lucid dreamers (frequency equal or higher than once a month). Dream recall frequency was significantly related to lucid dream frequency. In the Japanese sample the incidence of lucid dreaming was not related to that of nightmares after controlling for dream recall frequency. Compared to other countries, the Japanese sample showed significantly lower prevalence rates. This result might be explained by differences in the verification process of lucid dreaming (e.g., definition) and participants (e.g., psychology students). Representative samples are needed to gain a clearer picture of cross-cultural differences. The results, thus, indicated that lucid dreaming is a known phenomenon in Japan. Due to the long cultural history of dreams and dreaming in Japan it would be interesting to investigate groups with strong relationships with those roots (e.g., monks) to learn more about a possible lucid dream culture, comparable to Tibetan Buddhism (e.g., dream yoga).
Lucid dreaming; incidence; prevalence; frequency; nightmares; cross-cultural comparison