Nightmare frequency in a representative German sample

  • Michael Schredl (Author)
    Central Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany

Identifiers (Article)


Nightmares are defined as dreams with strong negative emotions that result in awakening. Overall, the findings of the present representative survey (N = 915) indicate that nightmare frequency decrease with age and living in urban areas are associated with heightened nightmare frequency. Longitudinal studies are needed to clarify how age affects nightmare frequency because the findings of cross-sectional studies are conflicting. In addition, it would be interesting to test whether increased nightmare frequency is explained by the presence of a mental disorder or whether urban environment is an independent risk factor for nightmares. As nightmares are underdiagnosed and undertreated, it would also make sense to carry out studies that try to clarify the reasons behind this problem that nightmare sufferers not receive adequate treatment.


nightmares, dream recall, age effects, gender differences, urbanization
How to Cite
Schredl, M. (2013). Nightmare frequency in a representative German sample. International Journal of Dream Research, 6(2), 119–122.