Non-lucid dreamers actualize volition as ego executive capacity by engaging in problem solving
AbstractWithin the already-investigated described nocturnal cognitive problem-solving phenomenon (Kozmová, 2008, 2012, 2015), the goal of this exploratory study was to determine the contexts in which non-lucid dreamers engage in problem-solving by voluntary actions and behaviors and to characterize volition and its range in kinetic (motile) and communicative (expressive) modalities. The 979 cross-cultural operationally defined problem-solving dreams were analyzed by the method of grounded theory. The analysis of individual occurrences of problem-solving behaviors and actions as volition-based executive skills (ego executive capacity) in addition to other types of cognitions, yielded a total of exemplary 54 dreams with contexts of self-preservation, intrapersonal situations, and interpersonal relationships. The initial
emergent cross-state characterization of volition in non-lucid problem-solving dreams calls for reappraisal of neurophysiological theories that did not yet consider the existence of volition as an executive skill that is sustained or could emerge during non-lucid dreaming.
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Key terms; volition; problem-solving; executive function; executive skills; higher order cognition; ego executive capacities; non-lucid dreaming; grounded theory