Psychotherapeutic approaches for post-traumatic stress disorder nightmares
Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) can affect individuals in both their waking and sleeping life and psychotherapists can utilize interventions towards either wakefulness or sleep. This article reviews the history of PTSD, its socio-cultural contexts, as well as incidence and treatment. We then discuss a multilevel cognitive model of PTSD nightmares and research-supported treatments. Such treatments range from waking exposure, pre-sleep rescripting, to lucid dreaming exposure. The authors conclude with a discussion of Time Perspective Therapy.