Response to Howard (2018): Comments on ‘A Meta-Reanalysis of Dream-ESP Studies’
Dream-ESP is a form of extra-sensory perception (ESP) in which a dreaming perceiver ostensibly gains information about a randomly selected target without using the normal sensory modalities or logical inference. We conducted a meta-analysis on dream-ESP studies (dating from 1966 to 2016), and found a number of significant effects indicating support for the ESP hypothesis (Storm et al., 2017). Howard (2018) critiqued our study, and found much weaker effects based on a re-analysis of our data, to which he applied inverse-variance weights to the study values. Although Howard replicated a number of our findings, his other findings can be challenged. We discuss meta-analytic approaches, including the controversial issues of publication bias and what to do with outliers, and we present some re-analyses.