Dream content in cigarette smokers
Numerous studies have investigated the different ways in which the content of everyday dreams relates to the dreamer’s waking concerns, thoughts and activities. The aim of the present study was to further examine which types of waking behaviors are likely to be incorporated into everyday dreams by examining the frequency of smoking dreams in the home dream reports of 36 adult smokers and 36 non-smokers. In addition, since nicotine consumption impacts sleep, including REM sleep, we also explored if smokers and non-smokers differ in their self-reported and dream diary-based dream recall frequency. A total of 931 dream reports were collected. No significant difference between smokers and non-smokers was found in the proportion of their dream reports containing references to smoking (less than 1% in both groups). In addition, smokers and non-smokers did not differ significantly in their estimated levels of weekly dream recall, nor in the actual number and word length of dreams reported in their home dream logs. These results are discussed in relation to previous studies of smoking dreams as well as in light of the continuity hypothesis of dreaming.