Validation of the Malay version of the Persian adaptation of the Mannheim Dream Questionnaire (MADRE) among the Malaysian population

  • Muhammad Farhan Nordin (Author)
    National Defence University Malaysia
  • Zahiruddin Othman (Author)
    Universiti Sains Malaysia
  • Yee Cheng Kueh (Author)
    Universiti Sains Malaysia

Identifiers (Article)


Dreams are a common phenomenon people experience throughout their lives. So far, no validated questionnaire has been available to assess the Malaysian population’s dream experiences. One of the tools available to measure dream experience and attitude towards the dream is the Mannheim Dream Questionnaire (MADRE). Therefore, there is a need to validate the Malay version of simplified MADRE based on the Persian version to explore dream experiences among the local population and their associated factors. This study aims to validate the Malay version of MADRE (M-MADRE), which was adapted from the Persian Adaptation of Mannheim Dream Questionnaire. A cross-sectional study involving 412 participants from 18 years and above was conducted via an online questionnaire form from August 2020 until October 2020. M-MADRE was initially translated from the English-translated Persian Version of MADRE into the Malay Language using forward and backward translation procedures by a group of experts. The study started by quantifying content validity using Content Validation Index to ensure M-MADRE consists of content validity and is culturally appropriate for Malaysians. The finalized version of M-MADRE was pre-tested and coordinated on 31 participants. Study participants were instructed to complete the socio-demographic questionnaire and M-MADRE questionnaire. The final step was to analyze the data using SPSS version 26 and RStudio software for construct validity by performing exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, construct reliability, and test-retest reliability. In this study, the final model of M-MADRE mostly fits the data, which comprises 3 factors with 21 items, compared to the Persian Version of MADRE with 24 items and 6 factors. The findings revealed acceptable fit indices (RMSEA=0.062, CFI=0.936, TLI=0.927, SRMR=0.054), overall Cronbach’s alpha is acceptable (0.86-0.93), and exhibit excellent test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.95). The study revealed that a 3-factor model with 21 items of the Malay Version Version of MADRE contains good psychometric properties. With this, the scale is proven valid and reliable in measuring the dream experiences Malaysians undergo and their attitude towards it.


Factor Analysis, Dream, Nightmare, Validity, Malaysia
How to Cite
Nordin, M. F., Othman, Z. ., & Kueh, Y. C. . (2022). Validation of the Malay version of the Persian adaptation of the Mannheim Dream Questionnaire (MADRE) among the Malaysian population . International Journal of Dream Research, 15(2), 212–223.