Themes of Continuity

  • Josie Malinowski (Author)
    Psychology, Faculty of Health and Social Sciences, D803 Civic Quarter, Leeds Metropolitan University Calverley Street Leeds England LS1 3HE
  • Caroline L. Horton (Author)

Identifiers (Article)


Hobson and Schredl’s (2011) discussion on continuity and discontinuity between waking life and dreaming raised important issues about the nature of continuity. We will address several of the points from the debate, drawing on some preliminary data that has been collected investigating the nature of continuity between dreaming and waking. The present commentary will address the following: factors that affect continuity; themes of continuity; the protoconsciousness theory; ‘disguised’ continuity; discontinuity; and continuity of emotions. The findings presented will propose that emotionality and metaphor are key aspects to continuity; that the continuity hypothesis and protoconsciousness theory are complementary if one takes into account how dreams both reflect waking-life concerns and help the dreamer to progress with them; and that it may be useful to try to identify and talk about types and gradations of continuity and discontinuity, rather than simply continuity and discontinuity as two opposing concepts.


How to Cite
Malinowski, J., & Horton, C. L. (2011). Themes of Continuity. International Journal of Dream Research, 4(2), 86–92.