A Cultural Comparison of Dream Content, Mood and Waking Day Anxiety between Italians and Canadians
This study extends previous research on the relationship among dream content, waking day mood and waking day anxiety while examining these variables between Italian and Canadian participants. One-hundred Canadian females from Trent University, Canada (M = 23.4, SD = 1.8) and 100 Italian females from Tor Vergata University, Rome (M = 25.6, SD = 1.9) volunteered one dream report and completed measures of waking day anxiety (BAI) and mood disturbance (POMS-SF). Dream imagery was categorized with Hall and Van de Castle’s method of Content Analysis and conducted via computer textual analyses. Significant differences between Italian and Canadian females were found for dream content as well as waking day measures while the predictive value of dreams was demonstrated. The findings have clinical implications for Canadians and Italians as well as other cultures. Limitations of the study and future research directions are discussed in terms of waking day mood and dreams.