Uncertainty Visualization and Digital 3D Modeling in Archaeology. A Brief Introduction.

Una Ulrike Schäfer

Abstract


Uncertainty is ubiquitous in everyday life and especially domains like engineering and industry, risk management or financial markets are increasingly aware of the far-reaching impact of uncertain data. Well-established research fields like the natural sciences are ever since concerned with the intangible phenomenon of uncertainty, as well as several disciplines like geography, information visualization, or any field concerned with the past. In this context, a range of disciplinary approaches were surveyed with regard to methods and techniques developed and applied to deal with uncertainty. As a result thereof various efforts were made to consider suitable taxonomies, quantification methods and visualization strategies. Emphasize is particularly laid on archaeology, highlighting the three-dimensional digital modeling and reconstruction activities and correlated archaeological discourse of the last two decades.
Important for all disciplines however is the highly complex interrelation between uncertainty and visualization for the appropriate and comprehensible representation of gained results.
Therefore, a range of visualization strategies is introduced, such as non-photorealistic rendering techniques, visual cues or several means for (re)contextualization, which evolved from disciplinary discourse in recent years. Also, some general visualization problems are mentioned. The final thoughts are meant to be somehow encouraging to consciously and creatively utilize uncertainty for future work in 3D modeling/reconstruction projects.


Keywords


uncertainty; visualization; archaeology; 3D modeling; digital reconstruction

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bertin, Jacques. Sémiologie Graphique. Les diagrammes, les réseaux, les cartes. Paris: La Haye, Mouton, 1967.

Boukhelifa, Nadia, and David J. Duke “Uncertainty Visualization: Why Might It Fail?” CHI ’09 Extended Abstracts on Human Factors in Computing Systems (2009): 4051-4056. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1520340.1520616.

Brodlie, Ken, Rodolfo Allendes Osorio, and Adriano Lopes. “A Review of Uncertainty in Data Visualization.” In Expanding the Frontiers of Visual Analytics and Visualization, edited by John Dill, Rae Earnshaw, David Kasik, John Vince and Pak Chung Wong, 81-109. London: Springer, 2012. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4471-2804-5.

Burton, Nicholas Robert, Miles Edward Hitchen, and Paul G. Bryan. “Virtual Stonehenge: a fall from disgrace?” Archaeology in the Age of the Internet: CAA97 Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology. Proceedings of the 25th Anniversary Conference (BAR International Series 750) (1999): 265/16-265/21.

Dungan, Jennifer L., D. Gao, and Alex T. Pang. Definitions of Uncertainty. NASA Ames Research Center, Computer Science Department, University of California Santa Cruz (2002). Available at: ftp://classes.soe.ucsc.edu/.zfs/snapshot/2015-01-01/pub/reinas/papers/white.pdf.

Eiteljorg, Harrison. 1998. Photorealistic Visualizations May Be Too Good. Center for the Study of Architecture (CSA) Newsletter 11(2). Available at: http://www.csanet.org/newsletter/fall98/nlf9804.html.

Frischer, Bernard, and Philip Stinson. “The importance of scientific authentication and a formal visual language in virtual models of archaeological sites: The case of the House of Augustus and the Villa of the Mysteries.” Proceedings of the Conference on Authenticity, Intellectual Integrity and Sustainable Development of the Public Presentation of Archaeological and Historical Sites and Landscapes (2002): 49-83.

Gershon, Nahum. “Visualization of an Imperfect World.” IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 18, No. 4 (1998): 43-45. doi:10.1109/38.689662.

Griffiths, Nick, Anne Jenner, and Christine Wilson. Drawing Archaeological Finds: A Handbook. London: Archetype Publications, 1990.

Hermon, Sorin, and Franco Niccolucci. “A Fuzzy Logic Approach to Reliability in Archaeological Virtual Reconstruction.” Beyond the Artifact. Digital Interpretation of the Past: Proceedings of the CAA2004 Conference (2004): 28-35.

Huang, Jia. A Survey of Pen-and-Ink Illustration in Non-photorealistic Rendering. Computer Science Department, School of Engineering and Applied Science, George Washington University, DC. Available at: http://www.icg.seas.gwu.edu/cs367/nonphoto.pdf

Images available at: http://www.sci.utah.edu/~kpotter/Library/Papers/zuk:2005:VTUR/.

Interrante, Victoria. NPR Techniques for Scientific Visualization. University of California, Davis, SIGGRAPH02 Course 23 (2002). Available at: http://web.cs.ucdavis.edu/~ma/SIGGRAPH02/course23/notes/Interrante.pdf.

Kensek, Karen M. 2007. A Survey of Methods for Showing Missing Data, Multiple Alternatives, and Uncertainty in Reconstructions. Center for the Study of Architecture (CSA) Newsletter 19(3). Available at: http://www.csanet.org/newsletter/winter07/nlw0702.html.

Kockel, Valentin. “Rekonstruktion als Rezeption: Die Rekonstruktion antiker Stadtbilder und ihre Verbreitung.” In Geschichte der Rekonstruktion: Konstruktion der Geschichte, edited by Winfried Nerdinger, Markus Eisen, and Hilde Strobl, 96-113. München: Prestel, 2010.

MacEachren, Alan M. “Visualizing Uncertain Information.” Cartographic Perspectives, No. 13 (1992): 10-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.14714/CP13.1000.

MacEachren, Alan M., Roth, Robert E., O'Brien, James, Li, Bonan Li, Swingley, Derek, and Gahegan, Mark. “Visual Semiotics & Uncertainty Visualization: An Empirical Study. ” IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics 18, no. 12 (2012): 2496-2505.

Miller, Paul, and Julian Richards. “The Good, the Bad, and the Downright Misleading: Archaeological Adoption of Computer Visualisation.” CAA94 Computer Applications and Quantitative Methods in Archaeology (BAR International Series 600) (1994): 19-22.

Perlinska, Marta. “Palette of possibilities: developing digital tools for displaying the uncertainty in the virtual archaeological reconstruction of the house V 1,7 (Casa del Torello di Bronzo) in Pompeii.” MA thesis, Lund University, 2014. Available at: http://lup.lub.lu.se/student-papers/record/4467561.

Potter, Kristin, Paul Rosen, and Chris R. Johnson. “From Quantification to Visualization: A Taxonomy of Uncertainty Visualization Approaches.” In Uncertainty Quantification in Scientific Computing, edited by Andrew M. Dienstfrey, and Ronald F. Boisvert, 226-249. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer, 2012. doi: 10.1007/978–3–642–32677–615.

Reilly, Paul. 2016. “The Old Minster, Winchester (2nd Version, 1985).” Vimeo video, 2:30, Juni 14. https://vimeo.com/170699480.

Roussou, Maria, and George Drettakis. “Photorealism and Non-photorealism in Virtual Heritage Representation.” First Eurographics Workshop on Graphics and Cultural Heritage (2003): 10.

Sifniotis, Maria, Phil Watten, Katerina Mania, and Martin White. “Influencing Factors on the Visualisation of Archaeological Uncertainty.” VAST'07 Proceedings of the 8th International conference on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Intelligent Cultural Heritage (2007): 79-85. http://dx.doi.org/10.2312/VAST/VAST07/079-085.

Sifniotis, Maria. “Representing archaeological uncertainty in cultural informatics.” PhD diss., University of Sussex, 2012.

Skeels, Meredith, Bongshin Lee, Greg Smith and George Robertson. “Revealing Uncertainty for Information Visualization.” AVI '08 Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces (2008): 376–379. doi: 10.1145/1385569.1385637.

Strothotte, Thomas, Maic Masuch, and Tobias Isenberg. “Visualizing knowledge about virtual reconstructions of ancient architecture.” Proceedings of Computer Graphics International (1999): 36-43. Available at: https://tobias.isenberg.cc/personal/papers/Strothotte_1999_VKV.pdf.

Thomson, Judi, Elizabeth Hetzler, Alan M. MacEachren, Mark Gahegan and Misha Pavel. “A typology for visualizing uncertainty.” Proceedings of SPIE 5669: Visualization and Data Analysis (2005): 146-157. doi:10.1117/12.587254.

Zuk, Torre Dana, and Sheelagh Carpendale. “Theoretical Analysis of Uncertainty Visualizations.” Proceedings SPIE & IS&T Conf. Electronic Imaging, Vol. 6060: Visualization and Data Analysis SPIE (2006): 14. Images available at: http://www.sci.utah.edu/~kpotter/Library/Papers/zuk:2006:TAUV/.

Zuk, Torre Dana, Sheelagh Carpendale, and William D. Glanzman. “Visualizing Temporal Uncertainty in 3D Virtual Reconstructions.” VAST'05 Proceedings of the 6th International conference on Virtual Reality, Archaeology and Intelligent Cultural Heritage (2005): 99-106. http://dx.doi.org/10.2312/VAST/VAST05/099-106.

Zuk, Torre Dana. “Visualizing Uncertainty.” PhD diss., University of Calgary, 2008, doi: 10.13140/RG.2.1.2467.7209





DOI: https://doi.org/10.11588/dah.2018.3.32703

URN (PDF): http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:bsz:16-dah-327038

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.