Prądy racjonalistyczne w architekturze Wilna około 1910 roku

  • Nijolė Tolvaišienė (Author)

Identifiers (Article)


Origins of Rationalism in Architecture of Vilna (Wilno, now Vilnius) circa 1910

The article tells about architectural phenomenon in Vilnius, which represented changes in social life and identify genesis of modernity. The earlier examples of changes were rational suggestions in a dwelling sector. Five storied houses (including 200 hygienic one-roomed apartments, a kinder-garden, a bathhouse, a laundry, a tea-shop) for Jewish labourers were built in 1900. Józef Montwiłł, a well known maecenas and director of the Vilna Land Bank initiated erecting of 5 dwelling estates, later named after him “Montwiłł 's Colony”. Earlier built estates were composed of farmstead-type houses and 2-4 apartment houses. The fifth colony, which erecting was over in 1913, was constructed of terrace houses. The apartments were situated in two stories. Contemporaries related the colonies to an ideal dwelling of the future and compared with city-gardens of England and Germany. Architecture of two houses in the last estate obtained features of racionalistic Art Nouveau. Compact lease-houses, decorated with stylised floral and zoomorphic reliefs, simultaneously became common in architecture of Vilna. New type buildings originated in the beginning of the 20th century. Ferro-concrete constructions, wide windows were used in Trade houses (architect Michaił Prozorov). Vilna Municipality resourced Electricity-station and Market Hall, which had large spaces spanned with metal constructions. Various fellowships initiated erecting of cultural purpose buildings. Old Vilna architecture was stylised in Art Nouveau manner in Polish Theatre (architect Wacław Michniewicz, 1913). Architect and sculptor Antoni Wiwulski proposed  delicate interpretation of Middle Ages basilica. He used ferro-concrete, which plastic capabilities determined architectural expression of the Church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and the Monument of Three Crosses.