0008 Diplomatie und Zeremoniell in Botschafterbildern von Carlevarijs und Canaletto

  • Susan Tipton (Author)
    Independent scholar

    Susan Tipton (b. 1961 in Mannheim), studied art history, history and archaeology at the FU Berlin and the LMU Munich; specialized in the arts and culture of Early Modern Europe; published on political iconography ['Res publica bene ordinata'. Mirrors for princes, Instructions for magistrates and Images of good goverment in Early Modern European Town Halls (Phil. Diss. Munich 1994), Hildesheim/Zürich/New York 1996], the history of collections ["'My passion for paintings…': The collections of Elector Palatine Johann Wilhelm (1658-1716) at Düsseldorf mirrored in his correspondence", Münchner Jahrbuch der Bildenden Kunst, LVII, 2006 (2007), p. 71-331], portrait and caricature [Exh. Cat. Katharina die Große, Kassel, Museum Fridericianum 1997/1998], court culture, festival and pageantry [Exh. Cat.  Theatrum Mundi - Die Welt als Bühne, München, Haus der Kunst 2003], and diplomatic ceremonial in 16th and 17th century painting ["Diplomacy and ceremonial in ambassador's paintings by Carlevarijs und Canaletto", RIHA-Journal 0008 (2010)]; curator and exhibition coordinator (Staatliche Museen Kassel 1995/98; The Detroit Institute of Arts, MI, 2001/03); independent scholar based in Munich.

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The article investigates representations of entries and audiences of European ambassadors and envoys within the context of early modern diplomacy. Focussing on works by Carlevarijs, Canaletto and contemporaries, the genre of diplomatic images, defined by their emphasis on ceremonial detail, is followed back into the early 17th century when the practice of diplomatic exchange and the protocol for representatives of state in international affairs were first established. In the light of new archival material, diplomatic imagery is discussed from the customer perspective and analyzed in the context of the interior decoration of the embassy, the audience chamber and reception rooms of ambassadors' homes. A close reading of the images and the confrontation with contemporary sources provides new insight into a somewhat neglected genre of painting with significance not only for the history of art, but also for political iconography, ceremonial history, and early modern diplomacy.


early modern diplomacy, ambassadors, embassy, Carlevaris, Luca, Canal, Antonio, Ereignisbild, Diplomatie, Frühe Neuzeit, Zeremoniell, Akkreditierung, Präzedenz, Botschafterbilder, Botschafter, Prunkgondeln